Apply These Secret WAYS TO Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages
Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. If you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you may well be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This short article aims to answer the next questions:
What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What sort of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage
There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is crucial that it have the right amount of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or in an embryo or fetus could cause a female to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.
Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.
pregnancy loss Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?
Miscarriage is far more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.
Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage go on to have a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.
Of note, the rate of miscarriage appears to be increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas previously the miscarriage would have appeared to be just a unique period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.
Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages
Genetic testing actually identifies many different types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to perform is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.
The most common approach to chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.
Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. Because of this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is available, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it could be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.
Microarray testing is really a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more likely to receive results and the outcomes are usually returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood concurrently the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).
Chromosome Testing – How do it help?
In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Usually, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a minimal chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to research the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes one to have miscarriages.
Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.
Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving past the question of “Why did this eventually me?”.
Chromosome testing can be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their chances of having an effective healthy pregnancy.