Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages
Although most couples are blissfully unaware of the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. For those who have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the next questions:
What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What type of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage
There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is necessary that it have the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or within an embryo or fetus can cause a woman to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.
Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. motherhood This number may be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.
Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?
Miscarriage is far more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.
Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage continue to have a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.
Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas in the past the miscarriage would have were just a unique period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.
Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages
Genetic testing actually identifies many different types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.
The most common approach to chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.
Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. For that reason requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is found, it may be the right result for the fetus or it can be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.
Microarray testing is really a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more prone to receive results and the results are typically returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood simultaneously the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).
Chromosome Testing – How do it help?
If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Most of the time, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a low possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to research the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes you to have miscarriages.
Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your physician might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.
Lastly, knowing the explanation for a pregnancy loss can help a couple of start the emotional healing process, moving at night question of “Why did this happen to me?”.
Chromosome testing can be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their chances of having a successful healthy pregnancy.